Challenges in Nigeria Educational System

Challenges/Problems relating to Nigeria Educational System

In this post, we take a look at some of the challenges/problems of education in Nigeria. Some of these problems include issues with funding, infrastructures, teaching aids, well-trained teachers and learning environment. Moreover, examination malpractice, corruption further contributes to the problems of quality education in Nigeria. There is the need for government and stakeholders to address these issues in order to achieve the goals of education in Nigeria.

Today, Nigeria’s educational system is witnessing steady decline marked by deterioration of facilities, unqualified teachers, examination malpractices, etc. Indeed, education in Nigeria is in a collapsing state.

In order for Nigeria to successfully confront the challenges of development, the nation must invest in human capital to increase the ability to absorb and utilize knowledge; and invest in technologies to facilitate both the acquisition and the absorption of knowledge.

What is Education?

Education can be defined as the aggregate of all the processes by which a person (child or adult) develops the abilities, attitudes and behavior which enable him/her to live positively in society in which he lives.

Challenges/Problems of Education in Nigeria

1. Examination Malpractice and Poor Preparation:

Examination malpractice remains a major challenge facing education in Nigeria. Students as well as teachers engage in examination malpractice to ensure students pass their examinations.

It is common to see some teachers at the secondary school level asking students to contribute money in order to secure some form of assistance during such examinations.

For this reason, majority of secondary school students on annual basis choose to enroll and write their final year external examination in schools where malpractice is allowed and encouraged.

2. Exploitation:

Students in majority of our schools endure varying degrees of exploitation by school administrators in the name of enrollment fees and assurance of success in their examination.

Similarly, students endure exploitation in most of the tertiary institutions across the country. This could be in the form of dues that are not accounted for, forced purchase of handouts and substandard textbooks.

Exploitation kills student morale and lowers their academic output.

3. Corruption:

There is a relationship between corruption and the poor state of academic standards in Nigeria. Students are compelled to pay for grades in many secondary schools and universities by some teachers. As a result, students who have money do not have to attend classes to pass examinations.

In the tertiary institutions, some instructors/lecturers sell copies of textbook extracts.  Students are expected to buy the copies or are forced to fail the classes for failure to buy.

In addition, many students pay professional examination takers to take examinations for them.

Due to poor salaries, teachers/lecturers earn tremendous amount of money on the side by extorting students to cough out money to them through various ways.

Consequently, education in Nigeria is increasingly being viewed by many administrators and professionals as a big business. For them, the primary purpose of being in education is to accumulate wealth. They do this by forcing students to cough out money in various ways and by embezzling allocated funds.

 As corruption becomes more rampant, public schools will suffer more.

Due to systemic corruption, the Nigerian educational system is producing individuals who are perpetually preoccupied with looking for ways to exploit the society for their personal gain, instead of contributing positively to the advancement of the society.

4. Poor Parenting:

The word, parenting, entails guidance, protection, caring, and provision of basic needs of the child to enable him or her to be adequately equipped to meet with the challenges of life.

Unfortunately, some parents encourage examination malpractice in order to brighten the chances of their wards in qualifying examination to higher institutions.

5. Poor Funding:

The educational sector in Nigeria is grossly under-funded.

Due to poor funding instructional facilities, classrooms, libraries and laboratories have deteriorated in many schools. This has led to overall decline in academic standards.

Poor funding negatively affects procurement of technical and scientific equipments, books, and other instructional needs. There is the need for adequate funding if the educational institutions are to get out of the woods.

UNESCO recommends that 26% of the total budget of a nation should be allocated to education. However, according to a 1991 report, the percentage of recurrent budgetary allocation to education in Nigeria has never exceeded 10%.

Quality education is partly a function of the funds made available to the sector and judiciously utilized. Adequate funding is required to maintain both the human and material resources of the sector in order to achieve desired goals.

Furthermore, there is the need for an effective use and management of funds allocated to the sector.


There is the need for government and the private sector to provide more funding to schools to ensure quality training for learners.

There is the need to ensure teachers are properly trained and well-equipped.

There is the need for teachers as well as parents to encourage students to avoid examination malpractice in schools

There is the need to establish more vocational and technical education centers.

There is the need for proper monitoring and inspection of activities in schools.

There is the need to ensure that schools are properly staffed and equipped.

There is the need to provide modern learning facilities such as computers, projectors, etc.


Research Cyber Team hopes this article was helpful. For your research project (both under-graduate and post-graduate), term-paper, report, or article; kindly call Thompson – 0703 022 8325. Regards

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